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Moving around Rome
Rome has an extensive bus system.
One of the most popular and useful lines is the 40, which arches from the Termini station through the historic center and then up to the Castel Sant'Angelo, near the Vatican. It is considered an express route, so its bus stops are spaced about 1/2 mile (2/3 km) apart; but it is also very frequent, very convenient for most places that the Metro does not go to, and very fast moving, especially compared to other routes.
The 64 also goes from Termini to the Vatican. Beware, it is a favourite with pickpockets.
The 116 and 117 are little electric buses which winds through the Centro Storico.
The metro is quick and efficient, especially 'Linea A' (the 'red' route). It goes South to Anagnina, from where busses leave every half-hour or so to Ciampino airport. (Ticket on this bus costs EUR 1.20 - but on the bus.)
Night buses are the main methods of travelling through the city at night. During the summer (until 23 September) and on Fridays and Saturdays, the frequency of the rides is halved, which can vary among 10, 15, 30 and 35 minutes depending on the line, and of course, the particular pace of the city. In any case they are much more punctual than during the day, as traffic is much less jammed. This makes the drivers drive at high speeds, allowing passengers to experience a strange mixture of adrenaline and (the city's) classical views. Hubs of the night buses are Termini and Piazza Venezia.
Hop on / Hop off Buses
A popular alternative to city and pre-planned tour buses are the hop-on/hop-off, open-top double-decker buses. In the last few years there has been a veritable explosion in the number of such tours and at the last count there were seven different companies. An all-day ticket runs about 18-20 Euros, can be purchased as you board at any stop, and provides unlimited access to available seats (upper deck highly preferable in good weather) and earbud phones to plug into outlets for running commentary on approaching sights. Commentary is offered in nearly every European language. Most companies follow more or less the same route, starting at Termini station but there are also two different tours of "Christian Rome" and the Archeobus.
The Tram routes mostly skirt the historic center, but there are stops convenient for the Vatican, the Colosseum, and the Trastevere area. The number 8 does run into the center to Largo Argentina, not far from the Pantheon. Number 19 links the Vatican with Villa Borghese.
There are two lines, crossing at Termini station. Line A (red line) runs northwest past the Vatican, and south. Line B (Blue Line) runs southwest past the Colosseum and northeast.
The Metro is the most punctual form of public transportation in Rome, but it can get extremely crowded during rush hour.
By commuter rail
There is a network of suburban rail lines that mostly connect to smaller towns and conurbations of Rome. However, most of Rome is well covered by the ATAC buses, Metro, and trams.
On a moped
Scooter rental costs between 30 and 70 euros per day depending on scooter size and rental company. The traffic can be intimidating and the experience exciting but a bit insane.
There is the possibility to hire any kind of bike in Rome: from tandem, road bikes, children bikes to trekking bikes. Some shops are even specialized only on high quality ones while street stands will hire you cheaper and heavy ones.
Bicycling alone can be stressful because of the traffic. The best way is to discover first how to move around and avoid traffic and stress with a guide thanks to one of the tours offered by almost all rental shops. There are different itineraries offered from the basic city center, panoramic Rome, tour to the Ancient Parks (from 29euro for 4h). The experience is well worth it and you would reduce also your impact on the city environment and on the traffic which is the biggest problem of the capital.
Even moderately experienced cyclists, however, may find that cycling through Rome's streets offers an unparalleled way to learn the city intimately and get around very cheaply and efficiently.
While the Roman traffic is certainly chaotic to someone from a country with more regimented and enforced rules of the road, Roman drivers are, generally speaking, used to seeing two-wheeled conveyances such as bicycles, as well as scooters and motorcycles, and one may move throughout the city relatively easily.